Explained: Corbevax approved for emergency use, know how the RBD protein sub-unit vaccine works

New Delhi: The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on Tuesday granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to Serum Institute of India’s (SII) Covovax, and Biologicals E’s Vaccine Corbevax, subject to certain conditions. Recommendation From the expert panel of Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation.

Union Health Minister Dr Mansukh Mandaviya announced this on Twitter. He posted: “CORBEVAX Vaccine is India’s first indigenously developed RBD protein sub-unit vaccine against #COVID19, made by Hyderabad based firm Biological-E. It’s a hat-trick! This is now the third vaccine developed in India!”

While SII’s Covovax is a nanoparticle-based vaccine, Hyderabad-based firm Biological E’s Corbevax is an RBD protein subunit vaccine.

CORBEVAX is India’s first indigenously developed receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein sub-unit vaccine against Covid-19. The RBD is a part of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. The virus uses spike proteins to attach itself to host cells.

ALSO READ: Explained: As India Clears SII’s Covvax, Know What a Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine Is and How It Works

What is RBD protein subunit vaccine?

Subunit vaccines, also called acellular vaccines, contain purified fragments of a pathogen that have been specifically selected for their ability to stimulate immune cells, according to a public-private global health partnership, Gavi, according to an article published by the Vaccine Alliance. Helps to vaccinate nearly half of the world’s children against deadly and debilitating infectious diseases.

There are a variety of subunit vaccines, and are considered safe because the purified fragments are incapable of causing disease. According to an article in the Mayo Clinic, they include only those parts of the virus that best stimulate one’s immune system.

Protein sub-unit vaccines contain specific isolated proteins from viral or bacterial pathogens, and are being developed against SARS-CoV-2. Hepatitis B vaccines are other examples of protein subunit vaccines. An RBD protein sub-unit vaccine against COVID-19 uses the spike protein – a specific part of SARS-CoV-2. It is a recombinant vaccine, which means it is manufactured using living organisms such as yeast cells.

RBD protein sub-unit vaccines are suitable for people with compromised immune systems, contain no live components, result in no risk of vaccine-triggered disease, and are relatively stable. However, they are more complex to manufacture than other COVID-19 vaccines, and adjuvant and booster shots may be needed after receiving the primary vaccination dose.

How does the RBD protein sub-unit vaccine work?

The RBD protein sub-unit vaccine is one that induces protective immunity by targeting the RBD of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, which is a harmless protein. According to a study published in the journal, the vaccine contains residues of the RBD protein. nature,

According to the Gavi article, the residues of the RBD protein used in the vaccine are carefully studied to determine which combinations of molecules can generate a strong and effective immune response. The body develops an immune response against the injected fragments of the spike protein.

The immune system recognizes the S protein, and produces antibodies and defensive white blood cells. If the person becomes infected with the COVID-19 virus in the future, the antibodies will fight the virus.

An RBD protein sub-unit vaccine, like Corbex, helps the immune system recognize the S protein and make antibodies.

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